It’s pretty annoying that, by default, USB serial devices come up with somewhat restricted permissions. Sometimes adding the user to the dialout group works, sometimes it doesn’t. The most reliable way to fix this for all time is to add a udev rule but I can never remember the syntax, hence this post…
Even when the I2C ports on the Raspberry Pi are enabled as described here, they are only accessible when running in supervisor mode, which is not terribly convenient. To fix that, it’s possible to add a udev rule to change the mode of the devices. The description here is borrowed from my friend at Jumpnow incidentally.
Create a file /etc/udev/rules.d/90-i2c.rules and add the line:
Reboot the Pi and then the I2C ports will be accessible without having to run stuff with sudo.
scp is very handy for moving files between Linux systems, especially from desktops to embedded systems and vice versa. However, the syntax is always a challenge. For example, to copy a file from a remote system:
scp <username>@<machine>:<full path to file> .
would copy the specified file to the local directory. So for example:
scp email@example.com:/home/pi/file fred
would copy some file called file into the local directory as a file called fred. The order can be reversed to send the file the other way.
It’s the ‘:’ that causes all the trouble…
Finding PCM audio devices using the ALSA interface from software isn’t always completely trivial. On some builds for the BeagleBone Black, PCM audio devices appear as /dev/audio, /dev/audio1 etc. But this doesn’t seem to be generally true. Plus, this doesn’t definitively identify which device is which. A good way to find out is to open the pseudo file /proc/asound/pcm as it lists all the PCM devices in the system. To see what’s currently active, just cat the pseudo file:
UbuntuDev$ cat /proc/asound/pcm 00-00: ALC889 Analog : ALC889 Analog : playback 1 : capture 1 00-01: ALC889 Digital : ALC889 Digital : playback 1 00-02: ALC889 Analog : ALC889 Analog : capture 2 00-03: HDMI 0 : HDMI 0 : playback 1 01-00: USB Audio : USB Audio : capture 1 02-03: HDMI 0 : HDMI 0 : playback 1 02-07: HDMI 0 : HDMI 0 : playback 1 02-08: HDMI 0 : HDMI 0 : playback 1 02-09: HDMI 0 : HDMI 0 : playback 1
The first two numbers are the plughw card and device numbers. So, if you wanted to connect to the USB audio source for example, you could do:
snd_pcm_open (&m_handle, "plughw:1,0", SND_PCM_STREAM_CAPTURE, 0);