Integrating SHAPE with rt-ai: adding AI to highly augmented spaces

A key feature of SHAPE is its ability to leverage the power of external servers in order to enhance the AR experience. The idea of combining relatively simple and cheap AR headsets with low latency communications links (such as 5G wireless) to edge servers is what is driving SHAPE’s architecture. Giving SHAPE access to rt-ai edge systems is a first example of this in action.

The screen capture above gives an idea of the current state of SHAPE development. This was taken using an iPad Pro running the iOS SHAPE app. The polygons with red edges are the planes that have been detected by ARKit. At the bottom right the monitor shows the same app running on a Mac (in the Unity editor in this case). The macOS version greatly speeds development of everything other than ARKit-related functionality – especially space synchronization functions (e.g. adding, moving, modifying or deleting object actions that need to be shared between all SHAPE users in the same space). The Unity iOS SHAPE app uses the ARFoundation API to, amongst other things,  load and save ARWorldMaps in order to synchronize spatial locations between SHAPE app instances. ARWorldMaps are persisted by the CoreUniverse components and cached for real-time use by EdgeSpace components, one EdgeSpace per physical “room”. SHAPE apps physically entering the room receive the latest map along with the space definition for that room. This includes the directory of augmentation objects with metadata that allows them all to be downloaded from asset servers (unless already cached) and then positioned correctly in the physical space and connected to the appropriate external function servers.

Augmentation objects can be moved around the space manually by touching the object with three or more fingers – sounds awful but it does work. It can then be dragged around the screen and the screen can be moved around to position the objects in space. Touching the object with two fingers brings up the object menu for that instance. This allows the object to be deleted, resized or rotated. It also allows the object to be stuck to a wall or stuck to the floor. in this context, a wall is an ARKit vertical plane, a floor is an ARKit horizontal plane so the object could easily be placed on a table if a suitable plane has been detected. If not, it can be placed manually. All of these object changes are sent to the room’s EdgeSpace (via EdgeAccess) and shared between other users in the space to keep everything synchronized. In addition, updates are sent to CoreUniverse for persistence. These become integrated into the persistent space definition for the room which EdgeSpace instances receive on a regular basis from CoreUniverse (primary and backup). Now this creates an interesting race condition since EdgeSpace is modifying its cached space definition in real-time and it may take a while for the CoreUniverse version to catch up. This problem is handled using timestamps attached to updates so that EdgeSpace can correctly integrate new information from CoreUniverse (such a new object instantiated by a space design tool) while ignoring stale updates for existing objects.

The box with big “M”s is the menu object. Each room has one and it can be placed anywhere convenient in the room. You can click on it (well touch it actually if using an iPad touch screen) and this pops up a menu that allows the user to add augmentation objects. Right now this is just working for the infamous analog clock but will eventually present a catalog of available models with thumbnails. The analog clocks are proxy objects and being driven by an external analog clock server. Obviously it is trivial to implement this purely in the Unity app but it is meant as a simple test of the proxy object concept. The next proxy object to be added will be the sticky note object from rt-xr and then probably the rt-xr shared whiteboard.

Getting back to rt-ai integration, the rt-ai design above shows the simple test design that receives captured frames from the iPad’s rear camera. The frame rate is limited to 5fps so as not to load the WiFi link too much. For simplicity and low latency motion jpegs are used for this but of course compressed video could be used (and probably will be in the future). The new rt-ai SPE called SHAPEConductor looks to the SHAPE system like a SHAPE function server while mapping received messages into and out of an rt-ai stream processing network. In this case, the video is simply being passed through DeepLab to perform semantic segmentation and then the results displayed:


Here it is picking up the monitor running the macOS SHAPE app. In practice, more complex processing would be performed and results returned to proxy objects via the SHAPEConductor module and the SHAPE network.

One interesting application for this is to use the captured frames to recognize the physical space and automatically load the correct saved ARWorldMap for that physical space into the SHAPE app and instantiate all the appropriate augmentation objects, correctly located. Another would be to perform semantic segmentation and return the results to the SHAPE app so that it can be married to depth data and allow real time occlusion to be performed. ARKit 3 will do this on-device for people but apparently not in general. Offloading the segmentation should allow for a lot more flexibility, albeit with increased latency, and work on lower capability devices.

The SHAPE rt-ai integration is very much a work in progress and it will be fun to see what can be achieved with this combination.

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